Turkish people : Turkey is one of the important countries in the world because of its powerful role in the industry.
Turkish people improve different aspects of their society and economy to its highest level.
Good location of this country also makes a helpful connection with various Asian and European countries to import and export different goods.
Government of Turkey
• Formal name: Republic of Turkey
• Local long name: Turkiye Cumhuriyeti
• Term for Citizens: Turks, Turkish people
• Capital City: Ankara
• Independence: the day when the Ottoman Empire fell is the Independence of Turkey. Turkish people celebrate October 29th annually from 1923.
• Public Holidays: New Year’s Day, National Sovereignty and Children’s Day, Commemoration of Atatürk and Youth and Sports Day, Victory Day, the End of Ramadan, Republic Day, and the Feast of the Sacrifice
• Legal system: it is based on European legal systems, especially the Swiss civil code which can help Turkish people have a better life.
• President: Recep Tayyip Erdogan
• Location: Turkey is located in southeastern Europe and southwestern Asia with a border of the Black Sea, the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea.
• Size: The country of Turkey has a total area of 783356 square kilometers while it has an area of 9820 square kilometers in water and Turkish people can take advantage of it in different ways.
• Neighboring Countries (based on the land boundary): Syria, Iran, Iraq, Armenia, Georgia, Bulgaria, Greece, and Azerbaijan.
• Rivers: this country has some main rivers:
o Kizilimak, Sakarya and Yesilimak: they flow from interior part of the country to the Black Sea.
o Firat (Euphrates): it flows from eastern mountains to the Arabian Platform into Iraq and Syria.
o Buyuk Menderes and Gediz: they flow from Anatolian Plateau to the Aegean Sea.
o The Meric: it flows from the border of Turkish Thrace and Greece to the northern Aegean.
o The Seyhan: it flows from the eastern highlands into the Mediterranean Sea.
• Climate: the climate in Turkey has different types and Turkish people feel a variety of weather conditions in each season.
o Coastal regions of the Aegean and Mediterranean Seas: they have hot and dry summers, and cool rainy winters.
o Coastal region of the Black Sea: it has a low temperature with the highest amount of rainfall in Turkey.
o The Anatolian Plateau: it is very cold in the winter with high amount of snowfall, and it is very hot in the summer.
o Eastern highlands: they have hot and dry summers with cold winters and high amount of snowfall.
• Natural resources: this country has different types of resources for Turkish people:
o Water: great amount of water resources in comparison to countries in the Middle East. It is generally used to irrigate and make hydroelectric power.
o Mineral resources: coal, boron and chromium can be seen as great sources of minerals.
o Long coastline: it results in development in finishing, tourism and commerce.
• Environmental factors
o Water pollution: it happens because of entrance of chemicals and detergents to water. Also, the high number of ships which carry oil and gas pass the Bosporus Strait every year.
o Air pollution: it mostly happens in urban areas.
• Time zone: it is 2 hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time.
Society of Turkey, Turkish people
• Population: according to the population censuses in 2018, Turkey had a population of 81257239 people.
• Age structure: information obtained in 2018 shows that most people in Turkey are in a range from 25 to 54 years old (about 43 percent); while, only 8 percent are 65 years old and more.
• Ethnic groups: people who live in Turkey had the following groups according to statistics in 2016 :
o 70 to 75 percent: Turkish people
o 19 percent: Kurdish people
o 7-12 percent: other minorities
• Languages: the main formal language of this country which is spoken by most Turkish people is Turkish.
Also, Kurdish, Bulgarian, Armenian, Balkan Gagauz Turkish, Domari, Ladino, and Romany are spoken by people in this country.
• Religion: a big number of people are Muslims, especially Sunni, but there are some other religions; such as Christianity and Judaism. Turkish people respect all people with every religion.
• Education and literacy: based on the censuses in 2016, 96.2 percent of population of Turkey is literate. It shows 98.8 percent are men and 93.6 are women.
• Driving side: Turkish people should drive from the right side.
• Calling code: +90
• Government budget: it contains revenues and expenditures which were 172.8 and 185.8 billion in 2017, respectively.
• Inflation: a comparison between the annual percent changes in consumer prices with that in the previous year is called inflation which was 11.1 percent in 2017 for Turkish people.
• Agriculture: a large number of total lands in Turkey are considered for agriculture based on the location of the land to be planted by Turkish people to produce different crops.
The main products are cotton, fruits, hazelnuts, tobacco, wheat, barley, corn, oilseeds, olives, potatoes, sugar beets and tea.
Furthermore, principle livestock for Turkish people are cattle, chickens, goats and sheep.
• Forestry: the most high quality timber is from the coastal region of the Black Sea which increases deforestation.
As local Turkish people depend on forests to provide their fuels, the government cannot completely control deforestation.
• Fishing: it is usually done in the coasts of the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara but it is not selected as one of the main industries which affect the economy of Turkey and life of Turkish people.
• Mining and Materials: Turkey has various minerals such as aluminum, chrome, copper, silver, gold, coal and soda ash; while the most important one is boron.
One of the minerals which is highly considered for export is marble.
• Industry and manufacturing: the main industries of Turkey have the following categories:
o Consumer goods: textiles and clothing, televisions, refrigerators, washing machines and vacuum cleaners.
o Heavy industrial products: processed fuels, steel, cement, tractors and fertilizers.
o Foreign auto companies: Fiat, Honda, Hyundai, Renault and Toyota
• Energy: the only fossil fuel which can be in large amount in Turkey is coal. Oil and natural gas are imported to this country from different regions.
• Services: the most important services provided for Turkish people and international tourists are banks and insurance companies, hotels and restaurants, shopping malls and supermarkets, and personal services.
• Labor: the statistics in 2017 show that Turkey has 31.3 million labor forces but this number does not contain Turkish people who work in other countries and refugees. It also showed that the unemployment rate in 2017 was 10.9 percent.
• Foreign economic relations: Turkey considered some import restrictions to help domestic industries; while steel, construction materials, appliances and motor vehicles considered as the most exported products.
• Currency and fiscal year: Turkish lira is the currency of Turkey and its fiscal year is the same as the calendar year.
• Transportation: as the distances are long from different parts of Turkey, transportation is based on domestic transportation to move Turkish people.
o Roads: they are responsible for the highest range of domestic transportation in Turkey.
o Railroads: they are important to connect most population centers.
o Ports: they are not highly efficient because of the high number of foreign freight.
o Inland waterways: some of them are essential lines of transport inside Turkey which are usually selected due to their safety and environmental factors.
o Civil aviation and airports: there are a lot of national and international airports in Turkey which are developed every day.
o Pipelines: they are used to transport oil and gas from different countries to Turkey.
o Telecommunication: it includes all mobile phones, Internet, data services and all technological devices for communication which are offered to Turkish people in an increasing mode annually.